We have developed a number of ELISAs that can be utilised for research studies.

Heart- FABP

H-FABP is present in the cytoplasm of myocytes. It plays an important role in lipid metabolism, binding long chain fatty acids and carrying them in the blood. The heart type isoenzyme of FABP is found in the heart and skeletal muscle.

Assay Range: 0-80 ng/ml

Sensitivity: 0.25 ng/ml

Liver-FABP

Fatty acid binding proteins are small cytoplasmic lipid binding proteins that are expressed in a tissue specific manner. FABPs bind free fatty acids, cholesterol, and retinoids, and are involved in intracellular lipid transport (1). Circulating FABP levels are used as indicators of tissue damage (2). Some FABP polymorphisms have been associated with disorders of lipid metabolism and the development of atherosclerosis.

Liver-type FABP is mainly expressed in hepatocytes of the liver, but is also found in proximal tubular cells of the kidney and in colonocytes and enterocytes (jejunal and ileal) of the gastrointestinal tract.

Assay Range: 0-150 ng/ml

Sensitivity: 1 ng/ml

GFAP

GFAP is the major intermediate filament and cytoskeletal protein expressed predominantly in astrocytes. As a cytoskeletal protein, it is thought to regulate astrocyte structural stability and mobility. GFAP is primarily known for its requirement in the central nervous system (CNS), where its deregulation or loss has been linked to degenerative conditions.

Assay Range: 0-107 ng/ml

Sensitivity: 0.29 ng/ml

NGAL

NGAL/LCN2 is a member of the lipocalin family of proteins which are known for the transportation of small hydrophobic ligands. NGAL was originally discovered in the granules of neutrophils but has since been found in many other human tissues including breast, kidney and liver. NGAL itself has many functions, for instance it’s sequestering of iron, prevention of bacterial growth, hemoattraction of neutrophils, reduction of oxidative stress and regulation of cancer cell survival. It has been reported however that NGAL is highly upregulated upon kidney damage where levels can rise by ~ 10 fold in 3 hours depending on the type and severity of injury.

Assay Range: 0-2,000 ng/ml

Sensitivity: 20 ng/ml

 

IL-18

IL-18 is a proinflammatory cytokine closely related to IL-1α and is believed to play a role in immune surveillance of various tumours. Elevated IL-18 is associated with various tumour types including prostate, lung, bladder and pancreatic cancer, as well as non-malignant conditions affecting the bones and kidneys.

The majority of IL-18 in serum is sequestered as an inactive dimer and only a small proportion is present as the active monomer. Current assays detect only monomeric IL-18. The use of monomeric assays has shown modest increases of this cytokine in cancer patient serum despite the observation that the bulk of IL-18 in serum was in a dimeric form and therefore undetectable by current assays.

Randox has developed an IL-18 RUO Elisa, a new immunoassay using in-house antibodies which detects total IL-18 in serum. A clinical application study has shown that this immunoassay has the potential to detect individuals with early stage cancer from those with non-malignant disease.

Assay Range: 0-2500 pg/ml (If the recommended minimum 1 in 5 dilution of serum samples is applied, the effective measurement range will be 0-12500 pg/ml)

Sensitivity: 42 pg/ml

M2-PK

Randox has also released a new immunoassay detecting M2 Pyruvate Kinase (M2-PK) in serum.   M2-PK is significantly increased in various cancers including colorectal and lung cancer. The Randox assay incorporates novel immunoreagents which are highly specific to the M2-isoform, despite the disease-associated M2-PK and the ubiquitous M1-PK isoform only differing by 22 out of 531 amino acids.

Assay Range: 0-128 ng/ml (If the recommended 1 in 10 dilution of serum samples is applied, the measurement range will be 0-1280 ng/ml)

Sensitivity: 3.4 ng/ml

CA19-9

The tumour marker is used in the management of pancreatic cancer and elevated levels following surgery can be used to predict recurrence. Patients with pancreatic symptoms and CA19-9 greater than 35U/ml may be referred for further investigation. Extremely high levels are possible in metastatic disease.

Assay range: 0-500 U/ml (If the recommended minimum 1 in 4 dilution of serum samples is applied, the effective measurement range will be 0-2000 U/ml)

Sensitivity: 3.6 U/ml